Morphology of Flowering Plants Stem: Bears branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits Conducts water a
Meiosis: This term was introduced by Farmer and Moore. This phase is called Reductional division because nu
Forms of Stem: Strong Stem: The following terms are important in relation to strong stems.
Biomolecules Biomicromolecules: All living organism, from microbes to mammals, are composed of chemical substan
1. Fission: It is that type of asexual reproduction in which a fully grown parent organism divides into two or more than two daughter cells. In this ca
Underground modifications of stem Tuber : It is the swollen tip of the underground branch or stolon. The ti
Human digestive system: Body parts including mouth from where food enters, digestive organs & elimination organs in digestive system are collectively called alimentary system or alimentary canal. It has 4 layers:- 1
Budding: It is that type of asexual reproduction in which one or more unicellular or multicellular outgrowths, called buds, are formed on or inside the parent
STAMEN The stamens are modified leaves or microsporophylls concerned with the production of microspores or pollen grains. There are two part of stamen - the long an
Kingdom Monera (eg. Bacteria ) They are ominpresent. They are grouped in to 4 groups based on their shape.
Mitosis: This term was introduced by Flaming. This phase is called Equational division because number of chromoso
Process of Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA technology involves the following steps:
3. Fragmentation: It is that type of asexual reproduction in which the parental body breaks into two or more fragments either by wave action (e.g. sponges) or by
Life Cycles Life cycles differs in the duration of haploid and diploid phase. There are three types of life cycles: (A) Haplonti
Central dogma of molecular biology: Francis Crick Proposed the central dogma of molecular biology. It stat
Spermatogenesis: The process of formation of sperm from diploid spermatogonia is called spermatogenesis. Proces
Oogenesis: The process of formation of mature female gamete in the ovary of females is called oogenesis.
ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID:- Given by Charles Elton It is graphical representation of food chain of an ecosystem.
Cell Membrane (J.O. Plowe (1931) called it plasmalemma): Its presence was first recognised by Naige
Leaves : A leaf is a dissimilar, green, flat, expended lateral outgrowth of stem or its branches on a node. Each leaf consists
Active Transport: Uses energy to pump molecules against a concentration gradient. Casparian strip presents in the endodermis (the i
Pre-fertilization Events: These events of sexual reproduction are prior to the fusion (fertilization) of male and female gametes. a) &nbs
Facilitated diffusion: It is difficult for substances that have hydrophilic moiety to pass through membrane so their movement has to be facilitate
Life Span: The period from birth to the natural death of an organism is called its life span. Life span of an organism may be few minutes to several th
Pollen Grain Pollen grains are male gametophyte - spherical in shape. Microspore or pollen grain is haploid, uninucleate, minute spores
Embryo formation: Embryo develops at the micropylar end of the embryo sac where the zygote is situated. Most of the zygotes divide only after certain am
Structure of Ovule: Ovule is an integumented megasporangium found in sper- matophytes which develops into seed after fertilisation. An angiosperm o
Test Cross: Cross between an individual of unknown genotype (hybrid) with an individual which is homozygous for recessive trait is test cross.
Human male reproductive system: The male reproductive system consist of the following: Primary sex organs: Testis