Alkynes contain a triple bond (≡). A triple bond has one and two bonds. Some characteristic reactions of alkynes are, Combustion
Moment of Inertia of Some Standard Bodies About Different Axes
Chemical properties of Alkene Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of a double bond. The carbon-carbon double bond consists o
Type of Legands:- Legands are e- donors means nucleophile and their denticity depends on presence of lone pairs which can be co-ordinate
Common names of organic compounds Common nomenclature In the common system, cyanides are named by any of the following
Chemical properties of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones ADDITION REACTIONS Aldehydes and ketones are reduced to the corr
Covalent Bond:-Lewis – Longmuir Concept:- Langmuir   in. 1919 improved Lewis
Esters RCOOR' are named after the corresponding carboxylic acids by replacing the ending -ic acid with -ate and preceding this with the name of the
Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells Crystal lattice is the depiction of three dimensional arrangements of constituent particles (atoms, molecules, ions
Addition reactions of benzene Benzene gives some addition reactions. Some typical reactions are: Addition of hydrogen
Nucleophilic Addition Reactions Being unsaturated, aldehydes and ketones undergo addition reactions. They have a polar carbonyl group. The carbon o
Nomenclature, preparation and properties of i. Acid halides ii. Acid amides iii. Acid anhydrides and iv. Esters Introduction of carboxylic
Reduction of nitroalkane Nitro compounds can be reduced to primary amines under a variety of conditions. The various reduction stages of the nitro
Isomerism:- Complexes having some molecular formula but different structure are called structural Isomer and in such Insomer 3 – D Orientati
IUPAC system and IUPAC rules of naming hydrocarbon IUPAC stands for International Union of Pure and Applied Science Nomenclature
GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF ETHERS : PHYSICAL  PROPERTIES : Physical properties of ether
Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7) Preparation:- Potassium dichromate is prepared from the ore called
Due to the property of surface tension a drop or bubble tries to contract and so compresses the matter enclosed. This in turn increases the internal pressure which prevents fu
IUPAC system and IUPAC rules of naming ethers Common names of ethers follow after the names of alkyl / aryl groups written as separate words in alp
Classification of antibiotics Broad spectrum antibiotics:- They kill or inhibit a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negat
Cleansing Agents:-Soaps and Detergents are mainly used. Soaps:-These are the sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids e
Chemical properties:- Glucose contains one primary and four secondary hydroxyl groups and one aldehydic group. Glucose shows the reactions of all these groups
Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol a) By oxidation of alcohols Aldehydes and ketones are generally prepared by ox
Nucleophilic reactions of haloalkanes Replacement by alkoxy group (Formation of ethers) - Williamson Synthesis
Chemical Properties of aliphatic amines Basicity of amines In amines, there is a lone pair of electrons on nitrogen. Th
The molecular formula of benzene has been found from analytical data, to be C6H6. Relatively higher proportion of carbon and addition of chlorine to benzene molecule indicate
Substitution by Nitrite Group The halogen atom of haloalkane gets substituted by nitrite group (-O-N=O) when it is treated with sodium or potassium
REACTION  with Na, Mg and chloral Haloarenes are chemically less reactive than haloalkanes. They can undergo the following reactions:
Acid anhydrides Acid anhydrides are called symmetrical when the two acyl groups are identical when the two acyl groups are identical and if the two
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