Classification of antibiotics
Classification of antibiotics
- Broad spectrum antibiotics:- They kill or inhibit a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria e.g. chloramphenical.
- Narrow spectrum antibiotics:- They kill or inhibit the gram-positive the or gram-negative bacteria only e.g Penicillin.
- Antiseptics and Disinfectants:- They either kill or prevent the growth of micro-organisms.
- Antiseptic are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, lacers etc. Some common examples of these are furacine, soframicine and Detol (mixture of chloroxylevel and terpineol), Iodine is also a powerful antseptic.
Tincture of Iodine:-2-3% solution of I2 in alcohol-water.
Iodoform:- Used as an antiseptic for wounds.
Boric acid:-Used as an weak antiseptic for eyes.
- Disinfectants:- Mainly use for non-living objects such as floors, drainage system, instruments.
e.g. 0.2% solution of Phenol→Antiseptic
1% solution of phenol→Disinfeetant.
4. Antifertility Drugs:- The drugs which leads to the concept of family planning
- Birth control pill:-Mixture of extramine & Progesterone
- Norethindrone:- Synthetic Progesterone as antifertility Drug.
5. Neurologically Active Drug:-Tranquillizers & Analgesics
(a) Tranquilizers:- The chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress or mental diseases. Sometime these are treated by using sleeping pills. e.g.
- Noradrenaline:- It is one of the neurotransmitter that plays a role in mood changes. When a person is in depression, then antidepressant drugs are given to that person. These drugs inhibit the Engyme which cause degradation of Adrenaline or Nor-adrenaline.
- Other examples are chlordiazepoxide, Equanil and derivative of Barbituric acid. These are suitable for relieving tension. These are used for controlling depression and hypertension. Some Barbiturates are used as sleep producing agent are known as Hypnotics. Some other e.g. are valium, serotonin
- Analgesics:- The chemical agents which are used to reduce or stop pain without causing unconsciousness, mental confusion or Paralysis. Drugs classified into 2 groups:-
- Non-narcotic Analgesics:- Aspirin and paracetamol are non-narcotic analgesics. Aspirin inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins which cause inflammation and pain. These drugs have many other effects like reducing fever (Antipyretics) and prevent blood coagulation. So aspirin is also used to prevent heart attack.
- Narcotic Analgesics:- Morphine and it’s homologue like Heroin, Codeine one used to relieve pain and produce sleep. But in excess or poisonous doses, it causes stupor, coma, convulsions and ultimately death. These are also known as opiate drugs.
Chemical in food:- Main categories of food additives are
- Food colour
- Flavors and sweetness
- Fat Emulsifier and stabilizing agent
- Autistaling agents and bleaches
- Nutritional Supplements vitamin, amino acids
Artificial Sweetening Agent:-The chemical agents which impart sweetening effect without increasing the calorie. Natural sweeteners increase the calorie that why artificial sweetening agents are used e.g
Saccharin (ortho-sulphobengimide) is first popular artificial sweetening agent. It is about 550 times sweet as cane sugar. It is excreted in urine unchanged, it’s of great value to the diabetic persons. Some other examples are
- Aspartame:-It is 100 times sweet as cane sugar, It is Methyl Ester of dipeptide formed from Aspartic acid and phenylalanine.
- Alitame:- It is more stable than Aspartame.
- Sucrolose:- It is trichloro derivative of Sucrose. It is stable at cooking temperature.